Thursday, 6 February 2014

Second Generation japanese ANIME:- Yasuji Murata,Hakuzan Kimura,Sanae Yamamotoand Noburō Ōfujiwere students of Kitayama Seitaro and worked at his film studio. Kenzō Masaoka, another important animator, worked at a smaller animation studio. In 1923, the Great Kantō earthquakedestroyed most of the Kitayama studio and the residing animators spread out and founded studios of their own. Prewar animators faced several difficulties. First, they had a hard time competing with foreign producers such as Disney, which were influential on both audiences and producers. Since foreign films had already made a profit abroad, they could be sold for even less than the price domestic producers need to charge in order to break even. Japanese animators thus had to work cheaply, in small companies with only a handful of employees, but that could make matters worse: given costs, it was then hard to compete in terms of quality with foreign product that was in color, with sound, and made by much bigger companies. Japanese animation until the mid-1930s, for instance, generally used cutout animationinstead of cel animationbecause the celluloid was too expensive. This resulted in animation that could seem derivative, flat (since motion forward and backward was difficult) and without detail. But just as postwar Japanese animators were able to turn limited animationinto a plus, so masters such as Yasuji Murata and Noburō Ōfuji were able to do wonders in cutout animation. Animators such as Kenzō Masaokaand Mitsuyo Seo, however, did attempt to bring Japanese animation up to the level of foreign work by introducing cel animation, sound, and technology such as the multiplane camera. Masaoka created the first talkieanime, Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka, released in 1933, and the first anime made entirely using cel animation,The Dance of the Chagamas (1934). Seo was the first to use the multiplane camera inAri-chanin 1941. Such innovations, however, were hard to support purely commercially, so prewar animation depended considerably on sponsorship, as animators often concentrated on making PR films for companies, educational filmsfor the government, and eventually works of propagandafor the military. During this time, censorship and school regulations discouraged film-viewing by children, so anime that offered educational value were supported and encouraged by the Monbusho (the Ministry of Education). This proved important for producers that had experienced a hard time releasing their work in regular theaters. Animation had found a place in scholastic, political and industrial use.

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