Some Stories Need To Be Told ANIME Style: Russia:-
Comics never gained high popularity in R...
Monday, 28 April 2014
Russia:- Comics never gained high popularity in Russia, only few Marvel's titles being a moderate success. Russian readers traditionally considered them children's literature, so the manga market developed late. A strong movement of anime fans helped to spread manga. The general director of Egmont Russia Lev Yelin commented that the most popular manga series in Japan are comics which "contain sex and violence", so they probably won't be published in Russia. A representative of Sakura Press (the licensor and publisher of Ranma ½, Gunslinger Girland some other titles) noted that although this niche is perspective, it's hard to advance on the market, because "in Russia comics are considered children's literature". It is also impossible for publishers to predict the success or failure of any specific title. On the contrary, Rosmen's general director Mikhail Markotkin said the whole popularity of comics doesn't matter, as only artistic talent and good story make a successful project, and only such manga "will work" on the market. The first officially licensed and published manga series in Russia was Ranma ½. Sakura Press released the first volume in 2005. Since then several legal companies appeared, including Comics Factoryand Comix-ART. Comix-ART, which is working in collaboration with Eksmo, one of the largest publishing houses in Russia, was the first company to publish Original English-language manga (usually called "manga" or just "comics"), such as Bizenghast, Shutter boxand Van Von Hunter.
Germany:- A volume of Barefoot Genwas licensed in Germany in the 1980s, as was Japan Inc., published by small presses. Akira's first volume was not very popular. Paul Malone attributes the wider distribution of manga in the late 1990s to the fledgling commercial television stations showing dubbed anime, which lead to the popularity of manga. Malone also notes that the native German comics market collapsed at the end of the 1990s. Manga began outselling other comics in 2000. With a few other series like Appleseedin the following years, the "manga movement" picked up speed with the publication of Dragon Ball, an un-flipped German manga, in late 1996. In 2007, manga account for approximately 70–75% of all comics published in Germany, with female readers outnumbering male manga fans.
Manga made in France:- A surge in the growth of manga publishing circa 1996 coincided with theClub Dorothée show losing its audience - which eventually led to the show going off the air. Some early publishers like Glénat, adapted manga using the Western reading direction and its induced work of mirroring each panel and graphical signs, and also using a quality paper standard to the Franco-Belgian comics, while others, likeJ'ai Lu, were faithful to the original manga culture and not only kept the original, inverted, Japanese direction reading but also used a newspaper standard, cheap quality, paper just like in Japan. The Japanese manga was such an important cultural phenomenon that it quickly influenced French comics authors. A new "French manga" genre emerged, known as "La nouvelle manga" ("lit. the new manga") in reference to the French Nouvelle Vague.
Cultural integration and revival (1999 to 2005) In late 1999 respected newspapers such as Le Mondegave critical acclaim to Hiroyuki Okiura's Jin-Roh, and in 2000, Hayao Miyazaki's Princess Mononoke became a commercial success. In 2004, Mamoru Oshii's Innocence: Ghost in the Shell 2became the first animation finalist in the prestigious International Film Festival of Cannes, which demonstrates a radical perspective change and a social acceptance of Japaneseanime / manga. Since 2005, contemporary Japanese series such as Naruto, Initial D, Great Teacher Onizuka, Blue Genderor Gunslinger Girl appeared on new, analog / digital terrestrial (public) and on satellite / broadband (private) channels. As the highly aggressive competition who raged once between, the sole two or three available channels no more exists in the new, vast, and segmented French TV offer, theanimeis doing a revival in France. In 2011, 40% of the comics published in France were manga.
Anime clearance and manga emergence (1996 to 1998) In 1996 the production group of Club Dorothée, broadcast on private channel TF1, set up a cable/satellite channel dedicated tomangaandanime. The new channel changed its name to Mangasin 1998: the concepts ofanimeandmangahave become intertwined in France, andmangaactually became the mainstream generic term to designate the two media. The channel broadcasts former discontinued series from the Club Dorothée both to nostalgic adults and to new and younger generations.
Saturday, 22 March 2014
Manga's Generational conflict around (1990 to 1995) Glénat published the first manga issued in France, Akira, in 1990 — supported by the respected newspaper Libération and by the national TV channel Antenne 2. Followers included Dragon Ball (1993), Appleseed (1994), Ranma 1/2 (1994) and five others. In the mid-1990s, manga magazines in B5 size like Kameha (Glénat) and Manga Player (MSE) were available. At the same time a controversy arose among some parents. In particular, the conservative association Familles de Francestarted a media polemic about the undesirable contents, such as violence, portrayed in the Club Dorothée, a kids' TV show. By this time, a generational conflict had arisen between the young fans of "Japanimation" (in use until anime became main stream) and the older Japoniai series (a pejorative pun for Japonaiseries, literally "Japanese stuff" and "niaiseries", "simpleton stuff") . Ségolène Royaleven published a book,Le Ras le bol des bébés zappeursin which manga are described as decadent dangerous and violent. She hasn't changed her position on that topic yet. The same adult content controversy was applied to hentai manga, including the notorious, "forbidden", Shin Angelby U-Jin, published by pioneers such as Samourai Editionsor Katsumi Editionsand later to magazines. The firsthentaiseries magazine, "Yoko", featured softcore series like Yuuki's Tropical Eyes. It was first issued in late 1995. The same year, the noir and ultra-violent series, Gunnm (aka Battle Angel Alita), was serialized in a slim, monthly, edition. Around the same period a hardcore version of Yoko magazineOkazwas issued.
The era of Toei (1987 – 1996):- In 1986 and 1987 three new private or privatized television channels appeared on French airwaves. An aggressive struggle for audience, especially on children television shows, started between the two public and the two private channels. After the private channels lost market share, they counter-attacked with a non-Japanese lineup, mostly American productions such as Hanna- Barbera. This ploy failed, and TF1 remained pre-eminent in children's TV shows with its Japanese licenses. In 1991 French theaters showed ananimefeature-film for the first time: Katsuhiro Otomo's Akira, a teen-rated, SF movie supported by manga publisher Glénat. TF1 Video edited the video ( VHS) version for the French market, and Akira quickly became an anime reference. However, Japanese animation genre became massively exploited by TV shows from the late 1980s onwards, most notably the cult Club Dorothée show (mostly dedicated to Toei animeand tokusatsu series). In fact, the commercial relationship between the Japanese studio and the French show producers were so good, that the French presenter was even featured in a Metal Hero Seriesepisode as guest star. Just as in a Japanese manga series magazine, the Club Doro thée audience voted by phone or minitelto select and rank their favourite series. Top-ranked series continued the following week, others stopped. The most popular series were Dragon Balland later its sequel, Dragon Ball Z, which became number one, and was nicknamedle chouchou ("the favorite") by the show presenter, Dorothée. As the series kept number one for several months, Dorothée invited Akira Toriyama ( Toei Animation), creator of the series, on the TV show studio to introduce him to the French audience and award him a prize in the name of the TV show. Saint Seiya was another anime series to achieve popularity in France. It too belonged to these inengenre, and thus showed more violence - directed towards an older audience - than the Nippon Animation studio shōnen / shōjoseries of the 1970s and 1980s. Notable Toei and non-Toei animeseries broadcast by that time on French TV included Captain Tsubasa, Robotech, High School! Kimengumi and Kinnikuman. This cult TV show ran from 1987 to 1997.
Nippon Animation era (1978 – 1986):- Producer Jean Chalopin contacted some Japanese studios, such as Toei (who didGrendizer); and Tokyo Movie Shinsha, Studio Pierrot and Studio Junio produced French-Japanese series. Even though made completely in Japan by character-designers such as Shingo Araki, the first Chalopin production of this type, Ulysses 31 took thematic inspiration from the Greek Odyssey and graphic influence from Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Ulysses 31 went on sale in 1981, other shows produced by DiC Entertainment followed in 1982, Jayce and the Wheeled Warriors, Mysterious Cities of Gold, later M.A.S.K., etc. Such series were enough popular to allow the introduction of licensed products such as tee shirts, toys, stickers, mustard glass, mugs or keshi. Also followed a wave of anime adaptations of European tales by Studio Pierrot and mostly by the Nippon Animation studio,e.g. Johanna Spyri's (1974), Waldemar Bonsels's (1975), Hector Malot's (1977), Cécile Aubry's (1980), or Jules Verne's Around the World with Willy Fog (1983), notable adaptation of American works were Mark Twain's Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1980) and Alexander Key's Future Boy Conan. Interesting cases are Alexandre Dumas, père's The Three Musketeers adapted to Dogtanian and the Three Muskehounds (1981) and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes become Sherlock Hound (1984), both turned human characters into anthro pomorph animals. Such anthropomophism in tales comes from old and common story telling traditions in both Japanese and French cultures, including the Chōjū giga emaki (the true origins ofmanga) of Toba Sōjō (1053–1140), and the animal fables of Jean de La Fontaine (1621–1695). Changing humans to anthropomorphized dogs reflects a known form of Cynicism: etymologically speaking, the bite of the Cyniccomes from the fact he is a dog (cynomeans "dog" in Greek). The adaptations of these popular tales made easier the acceptance and assimilation of semi-Japanese cultural products in countries such as France, Italy or Spain. The localization including credits removal by Sabanor DiC, was such that even today, twenty or thirty years later, most of French adults who have watched series like Calimero (1974) adapted from an Italian novel, Wanpaku Omukashi Kum Kum (1975), Barbapapa (1977) adapted from a French novel, or Monchichi (1980) as kids don't even know they were not local animation but "Japan animation" created in Japan, South Korea, Chinaor North Korea.
Manga Outside Japan-Manga in France-"French exception" (Europe):- France has a particularly strong and diverse manga market. Many works published in France belong to genres not well represented outside Japan, such as to adult-oriented drama, or to experimental andavant-gardeworks. Early editors like Tonkamhave published Hong-Kong authors ( Andy Seto, Yu & Lau) or Korean authors (Kim Jae-hwan, Soo & Il, Wan & Weol andHyun Se Lee) in their manga collection during 1995/1996 which is quite uncommon. Also, some Japanese authors, such as Jiro Taniguchi, are relatively unknown in other western countries but received much acclaim in France. Since its introduction in the 1990s, manga publishing and anime broadcasting have become intertwined in France, where the most popular and exploited shōnen, shōjoand seinen TV series were imported in their paper version. Therefore, Japanese books ("manga") were naturally and readily accepted by a large juvenile public who was already familiar with the series and received the manga as part of their own culture. A strong parallel backup was the emergence of Japanese video games, Nintendo/ Sega, which were mostly based on manga and animeseries.
Manga Outside Japan-Manga in Brazil (2):- In 2004, Panini started publishing manga, with the release of Peach Girland Eden. In 2012, Panini published the most popular manga in Brazil: Naruto and Bleach, as well as titles like Black Lagoon, Highschool of the Dead, Full Metal Panic!and Welcome to the N.H.K.. Panini has also, in 2012, acquired the publishing rights to One Piecein Brazil, continuing publication from where Conrad had stopped (Japanese volume 37) as well as reprinting earlier volumes in the original Japanese format. Originally, Brazilian manga appeared with about half the size of a tankoubon (about 100 pages of stories and two to eight pages of extras), but as of 2012almost all of the manga is released in the original format.
Manga Outside Japan-Manga in Brazil (1):- Before the 1990s some trial marketing of manga took place in Brazil, including Lone Wolf and Cub, the first one published in the country, Mai, the Psychic Girl, Akira, Cobra, Crying Freeman, and The Legend of Kamui. The Brazilianshōnenmarket started in the mid-1990s with Ranma ½published by Animangá, although the publication did not prove successful (due to the fact that it was released in the American format and contained only two chapters per issue, roughly equivalent to one fourth of atankohon). It was followed by Pokémon: The Electric Tale of Pikachu, released by Conrad in 1999, during the Pokémonboom. In 2000, Conrad published Saint Seiyaand Dragon Ball (both titles already well known, since the equivalent anime had been highly successful in the 1990s). After the success of these titles, Conrad released not only trendy manga like One Piece, Vagabond, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Slam Dunk, but also classic manga like Osamu Tezukatitles (including Adolfand Buddha), Nausicaä, and less known titles like Bambi and Her Pink GunandSade. In 2003, the Japanese-Brazilian company Japan Brazil Communication (JBC) started publishing manga, releasing Rurouni Kenshin, Magic Knight Rayearth, Cardcaptor Sakuraand Video Girl Ai. In 2009, JBC published Clamp titles like X/1999, Tsubasa Reservoir Chronicleand xxxHolic, and popular titles like Inuyasha, Negima!, Fruits Basket, Death Note, Fullmetal Alchemist, Yu-Gi-Oh!, Shaman King, Love Hinaand Bakuman, having also picked up the publishing rights for Ranma ½ and Neon Genesis Evangelionin the same year.
Manga Outside Japan-Manga in United States ( North America ) :- In 2002, Tokyo pop introduced its "100% Authentic Manga" line, which featured unflipped pages and were smaller in size than most other translated graphic novels. This allowed them be retailed at a price lower than that of comparable publications by Viz and others. The line was also made widely available in mainstream bookstores such as Bordersand Barnes & Noble, which greatly increased manga's visibility among the book-buying public. After Tokyopop's success, most of the other manga companies switched to the smaller unflipped format and offered their titles at similar prices. As of 2012 a large number of small companies in the United States publish manga. Several large publishers have also released, or expressed interest in releasing manga. Del Reytranslated and published several Japanese series including xxx Holic, Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle and, Negima!: Magister Negi Magi, while Harlequinhas brought its Ginger Blossom line of manga, originally released only in Japan, to the United States as well.
Manga Outside Japan-Manga in United States ( North America ) :- The growth of manga translation and publishing in the United States has been a slow progression over several decades. The earliest manga-derived series to be released in the United States was a redrawn American adaptation of Osamu Tezuka's Astro Boypublished by Gold Key Comicsstarting in 1965. The first manga to be published in the US with its original artwork intact was a ten-page story by Shinobu Kaze, "Violence Becomes Tranquility", which appeared in the March 1980 issue of Heavy Metal. In December 1982 the San Francisco-based publisher Educomics released a colorized and translated version of Keiji Nakazawa'sI Saw It. Four translated volumes of Nakazawa's major work Barefoot Genwere also published in the early 1980s by New Society Publishers. Short works by several Garo-affiliated artists including Yoshiharu TsugeandTerry Yumuraappeared in May 1985 in RAW's no. 7 "Tokyo Raw" special. In 1987, Viz Comics, an American subsidiary of the Japanese publishers Shogakukanand Shueisha, began publishing translations of three manga series - Area 88, Mai the Psychic Girl, and The Legend of Kamui- in the U.S. in association with the American publisher Eclipse Comics. Viz went on to bring English translations of popular series such as Ranma ½ and Nausicaä of the Valley of the Windin the late 1980s and early 1990s. Some other American publishers released notable translations of Japanese comics in this period, such as First Comics' serialization of Lone Wolf and Cubwhich started in May 1987. However, the first manga to make a strong impression on American audiences was Katsuhiro Otomo's Akira, which was brought to the United States in colorized form in 1988 by Epic Comics, a division of Marvel Throughout the 1990s, manga slowly gained popularity as Viz Media, Dark Horseand Mixx (now Tokyo pop) released more titles for the US market. Both Mixx and Viz published manga anthologies:MixxZine(1997–1999) ran serialized manga such as Sailor Moon, Magic Knight Rayearthand Ice Blade, while Viz's Animerica Extra (1998–2004) featured series including Fushigi Yugi, Banana Fishand Utena: Revolutionary Girl. In 2002 Viz began publishing a monthly American edition of the famous Japanese "phone book"-style manga anthology Shōnen Jumpfeaturing some of the most popular manga titles from Japan, including Dragon Ball Z, Naruto, Bleachand One Piece. Its circulation far surpassed that of previous American manga anthologies, reaching 180,000 in 2005. Also in 2005, Viz launched Shojo Beat, a successful counterpart toShonen Jumpaimed at female readers.
Manga Outside Japan-Flipping:- Since written Japanese fiction usually flows from right to left, manga artists draw and publish this way in Japan. When first translating various titles into Western languages, publishers reversed the artwork and layouts in a process known as "flipping", so that readers could follow the books from left-to-right. However, various creators (such as Akira Toriyama) did not approve of the modification of their work in this way, and requested that foreign versions retain the right-to-left format of the originals. [ citation needed] Soon, due both to fan demand and to the requests of creators, more publishers began offering the option of right-to-left formatting, which has now become commonplace in North America. Left-to-right formatting has gone from the rule to the exception. Translated manga often includes notes on details of Japanese culturethat foreign audiences may not find familiar. One company, TOKYOPOP (founded 1997), produces manga in the United States with the right-to-left format as a highly publicized point-of-difference.
Manga Outside Japan-Introduction:- Manga, or Japanese comics, have appeared in translation in many different languages in different countries, including Brazil, Korea, mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, France, Germany, Mexico, Argentina, Spain, Italy, and many more. France represents about 50% of the European manga market and in 2003 manga represented about one-third of the comics being published in the country. In 2011, this number grew to 40%. In the United States, manga comprises a small (but growing) industry, especially when compared to the inroads that Japanese animationhas made in the USA. One example of a manga publisher in the United States, VIZ Media, functions as the American affiliate of the Japanese publishers Shogakukanand Shueisha. VIZ Media has published many popular titles such as Dragon Ball, One Piece, Detective Conan, Neon Genesis Evangelion, Rurouni Kenshin, Naruto, Yu-Gi-Oh!, Fullmetal Alchemist, Bleachand the various works of Rumiko Takahashi. The UK has fewer manga publishers than the U.S. In 2007, 70% of the comics sold in Germany were manga.
History Of Manga-about Gekiga(2):- Not only was the story telling in gekiga more serious but also the style was more realistic. Gekiga constitutes the work of first generation of Japanese alternative cartoonists. Some authors use this original definition to produce works that only contained shock factor. As a result of Tezuka adopting gekiga styles and story telling, there was an acceptance of a wide diversity of experimental stories into the mainstream comic market commonly referred to critics as being the Golden Ageof Manga. This started in the 1970s and continued into the 1980s. In 1977, writer Kazuo Koike founded the Gekiga Sonjuku educational program, which emphasized maturity and strong characterization in manga. As mainstream shōnen magazines became increasingly more commercialized, gekiga's influence began to fade. More recently the most mainstream shōnen publications have lost a lot of gekiga influence and these kinds of works are now found in slightly more underground publications (usually seinen magazines). In addition other artistic movements have emerged in alternative mangalike the emergence of the avant-garde magazine Garoaround the time of gekiga's acceptance into the mainstream manga market and the much later Nouvelle Mangamovement. These movements have superseded gekiga as alternative comicsin Japan.
History Of Manga-about Gekiga (1):- Gekiga means Japanese is "dramatic pictures." The term was coined by Yoshihiro Tatsumiand adopted by other more serious Japanese cartoonists who did not want their trade to be known as mangaor "whimsical pictures." It's akin to Americans who started using the term " graphic novel" as opposed to " comic book" for the same reason. Tatsumi began publishing "gekiga" in 1957. Gekiga was vastly different from most manga at the time, which were aimed at children. These "dramatic pictures" emerged not from the mainstream manga publications in Tokyo headed by Osamu Tezukabut from the lending libraries based out of Osaka. The lending library industry tolerated more experimental and offensive works to be published than the mainstream "Tezuka camp" during this time period. By the late 1960s and early 1970s the children who grew up reading manga wanted something aimed at older audiences and gekiga provided for that niche. In addition this particular generation came to be known as the manga generation and read manga as a form of rebellion (which was similar to the role rock and roll played for hippiesin the United States). Manga reading was particularly common in the 1960s among anti- U.S.-Japan Security Treatyand Labor oriented student protest groups at this time. These youths became known in Japan as the " manga generation." Because of the growing popularity of these originally underground comics, even Osamu Tezukabegan to display the influence of gekiga cartoonists in works such asHi no Tori ( Phoenix), produced in the early 1970s, and especially in Adolf, produced in the early 1980s. Adolfhas heavy influences from Tatsumi's artwork, with more realistic styling and darker settings than most of Tezuka’s work. In turn Tatsumi was influenced by Tezuka though storytelling techniques.
History Of Manga-Gekiga:- Gekiga literally means "drama pictures" and refers to a form of aesthetic realismin manga. Gekiga style drawing is emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent, and focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions. Gekiga arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working class political activism and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumiwith existing manga. Examples include Sampei Shirato's 1959-1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō), the story of Kagemaru, the leader of a peasant rebellion in the 16th century, which dealt directly with oppression and class struggle, and Hiroshi Hirata's Satsuma Gishiden, about uprisings against the Tokugawa shogunate. As the social protest of these early years waned, gekiga shifted in meaning towards socially conscious, mature drama and towards the avant-garde. Examples include Koike and Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub and Akira, an apocalyptic tale of motorcycle gangs, street war, and inexplicable transformations of the children of a future Tokyo. Another example is Osamu Tezuka's 1976 manga MW, a bitter story of the aftermath of the storage and possibly deliberate release of poison gas by U.S. armed forces based in Okinawa years after World War II. Gekiga and the social consciousness it embodies remain alive in modern-day manga. An example is Ikebukuro West Gate Parkfrom 2001 by Ira Ishidaand Sena Aritou, a story of street thugs, rape, and vengeance set on the social margins of the wealthy Ikebukurodistrict of Tokyo.
History Of Manga-Shōnen,seinen,andseijin manga (3) [Sex & Women's Roles In Manga For Males:- In early shōnenmanga, men and boys played all the major roles, with women and girls having only auxiliary places as sisters, mothers, and occasionally girlfriends. Of the nine cyborgs in Shotaro Ishinomori's 1964 Cyborg 009, only one is female, and she soon vanishes from the action. Some recentshōnen manga virtually omit women, e.g., the martial arts story Baki the Grapplerby Itagaki Keisukeand the supernatural fantasy Sand Landby Akira Toriyama. However, by the 1980s, girls and women began to play increasingly important roles inshōnen manga, for example, Toriyama's 1980 Dr. Slump, whose main character is the mischievous and powerful girl robot Arale Norimaki. The role of girls and women in manga for male readers has evolved considerably since Arale. One class is the pretty girl ( bishōjo). Sometimes the woman is unattainable, but she is always an object of the hero's emotional and sexual interest, like Belld andy from Oh My Goddess!by Kōsuke Fujishimaand Shao-lin from Guardian Angel Gettenby Minene Sakurano. In other stories, the hero is surrounded by such girls and women, as in Negimaby Ken Akamatsu and Hanaukyo Maid Teamby Morishige. The male protagonist does not always succeed in forming a relationship with the woman, for example when Bright Honda and Aimi Komori fail to bond in Shadow Ladyby Masakazu Katsura. In other cases, a successful couple's sexual activities are depicted or implied, like Outlandersby Johji Manabe. In still other cases, the initially naive and immature hero grows up to become a man by learning how to deal and live with women emotionally and sexually, like Yota in Video Girl Aiby Masakazu Katsura, Train Man in Train Man: Densha Otokoby Hidenori Hara, and Makoto in Futari Ecchiby Katsu Aki. Inporuno-andero manga (seijin manga), often called hentai manga in the U.S., a sexual relationship is taken for granted and depicted explicitly, as in work by Toshiki Yui and in Were-Slutby Jiro Chiba and Slut Girlby Isutoshi. The result is a range of depictions of boys and men from naive to very experienced sexually. Heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo) represent another class of girls and women in manga for male readers. Somesentō bishōjoare battle cyborgs, like Alita from Battle Angel Alitaby Yukito Kishiro, Motoko Kusanagi from Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell, and Chise from Shin Takahashi's Saikano. Others are human, like Attim M-Zak from Hiroyuki Utatane's Seraphic Feather, Johji Manabe's Karula Olzen from Drakuun, and Alita Forland (Falis) from Sekihiko Inui's Murder Princess As of 2013 national censorship laws and local ordinances remain in Japan and the public response to the publication of manga with sexual content or the depiction of nudity has been mixed. Series have an audience and sell well but their publication also encounters opposition. In the early 1990s the opposition resulted in the creation of Harmful manga lists and a shift in the publishing industry. By this time large publishers had created a general manga demand but the corollary is that they were also susceptible to public opinion in their markets. Faced with criticism from certain segments of the population and under pressure from industry groups to self-regulate, major publishing houses discontinued series, such as Angeland 1+2=Paradise, while smaller publication companies, not as susceptible to these forces, were able to fill the void. With the relaxation of censorship in Japan after the early 1990s, a wide variety of explicitly drawn sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers that correspondingly occur in English translations. These depictions range from mild partial nudity through implied and explicit sexual intercourse through bondage and sado masochism (SM), zoophilia (bestiality), incest, and rape. In some cases, rape and lust murder themes came to the fore front, as in Urotsuki dojiby Toshio Maeda and Blue Catalyst from 1994 by Kei Taniguchi, but these extreme themes are not commonplace in either untranslated or translated manga.
Friday, 21 March 2014
History Of Manga-Shōnen,seinen,andseijin manga (2) :- Sports themes are also popular in manga for male readers. These stories stress self-discipline, depicting not only the excitement of sports competition but also character traits the hero needs to transcend his limitations and to triumph. Examples include boxing ( Tetsuya Chiba’s 1968-1973 Tomorrow's Joe and Rumiko Takahashi's 1987 One-Pound Gospel) and basketball ( Takehiko Inoue’s 1990 Slam Dunk Supernatural settings have been another source of action-adventure plots in shõnen and some shõjo manga in which the hero must master challenges. Sometimes the protagonist fails, as in Tsugumi Ohbaand Takeshi Obata's Death Note, where protagonist Light Yagami receives a notebook from a Death God ( shinigami) that kills anyone whose name is written in it, and, in ashōjo manga example, Hakase Mizuki's The Demon Ororon, whose protagonist abandons his demonic kingship of Hell to live and die on earth. Sometimes the protagonist himself is supernatural, like Kohta Hirano's Hellsing, whose vampire hero Alucardbattles reborn Nazis hellbent on conquering England, but the hero may also be (or was) human, battling an ever-escalating series of supernatural enemies ( Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist, Nobuyuki Anzai's Flame of Recca, and Tite Kubo's Bleach). Military action-adventure stories set in the modern world, for example, about World War II, remained under suspicion of glorifying Japan’s Imperial history and have not become a significant part of theshōnen manga repertoire. [Nonetheless, stories about fantasy or historical military adventure were not stigmatized, and manga about heroic warriors and martial artists have been extremely popular. Some are serious dramas, like Sanpei Shirato's The Legend of Kamuiand Rurouni Kenshinby Nobuhiro Watsuki, but others contain strongly humorous elements, like Akira Toriyama's Dragon Ball. Although stories about modern war and its weapons do exist, they deal as much or more with the psychological and moral problems of war as they do with sheer shoot-'em-up adventure. Examples include Seiho Takizawa's Who Fighter, a retelling of Joseph Conrad's story Heart of Darkness about a renegade Japanese colonel set in World War II Burma, Kaiji Kawaguchi's The Silent Service, about a Japanese nuclear submarine, and Motofumi Kobayashi's Apocalypse Meow, about the Vietnam Wartold in talking animal format. Other battle and fight-oriented manga are complex stories of criminal and espionage conspiracies to be overcome by the protagonist, such as City Hunterby Hojo Tsukasa, Fist of the North Starby Tetsuo Hara, and in theshōjo manga From Eroica with Loveby Yasuko Aoike, a long-running crime-espionage story combining adventure, action, and humor (and another example of how these themes occur across genres). For manga critics Koji Aihara and Kentaro Takekuma, such battle stories endlessly repeat the same mindless themes of violence, which they sardonically label the "Shonen Manga Plot Shish Kebob", where fights follow fights like meat skewered on a stick. Other commentators suggest that fight sequences and violence in comicsserve as a social outlet for otherwise dangerous impulses. Shōnen manga and its extreme warriorship have been parodied, for example, in Mine Yoshizaki's screwball comedy Sgt. Frog ( Keroro Gunso), about a platoon of slacker alien frogs who invade the Earth and end up free-loading off the Hinata family in Tokyo.
History Of Manga-Shōnen,seinen,andseijin manga (1) :- Manga for male readers can be characterized in different ways. One is by the age of its intended audience: boys up to 18 years old ( shōnen manga) and young men 18- to 30-years old ( seinen manga). Another approach is by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality. Japanese uses different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen for "youth, young man" and for "adult, majority" the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also calledseijin("adult") manga. Shōnen, seinen, andseijin manga share many features in common. Boys and young men were among the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the arche typical boy: sci-tech subjects like robots and space travel, and heroic action-adventure. Shōnen and seinen manga narratives often portray challenges to the protagonist’s abilities, skills, and maturity, stressing self-perfection, austere self-discipline, sacrifice in the cause of duty, and honorable service to society, community, family, and friends. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man did not become popular as ashōnengenre. An exception is Kia Asamiya's Batman: Child of Dreams, released in the U.S. by DC Comicsand in Japan by Kodansha. However, lone heroes occur in Takao Saito's Golgo 13 and Koike and Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub.Golgo 13 is about an assassin who puts his skills to the service of world peace and other social goals, and Ogami Itto, the swords man-hero of Lone Wolf and Cub, is a widower caring for his son Daigoro while he seeks vengeance against his wife's murderers. However, Golgo and Itto remain men throughout and neither hero ever displays superpowers. Instead, these stories "journey into the hearts and minds of men" by remaining on the plane of human psychology and motivation. Many shōnen manga have science fictionand technology themes. Early examples in the robot subgenre included Tezuka’s Astro Boy and Fujiko F. Fujio’s 1969 Doraemon, about a robot cat and the boy he lives with, which was aimed at younger boys. The robot theme evolved extensively, from Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1956 Tetsujin 28-goto later, more complex stories where the protagonist must not only defeat enemies, but learn to master himself and cooperate with the mecha he controls. Thus, in Neon Genesis Evangelionby Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, Shinji struggles against the enemy and against his father, and in Vision of Escaflowneby Katsu Aki, Van not only makes war against Dornkirk’s empire but must deal with his complex feelings for Hitomi, the heroine.
Thursday, 13 March 2014
History Of Manga Shōjo manga And Ladies' Comics From 1975 To Today (2):- With the super heroines, shōjo manga continued to break away from neo-Confucianist norms of female meekness and obedience. Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon (Bishōjo Senshi Sēramūn: "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon") is a sustained, 18-volume narrative about a group of young heroines simultaneously heroic and introspective, active and emotional, dutiful and ambitious. The combination proved extremely successful, andSailor Moon became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats. Another example is CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth,whose three young heroines, Hikaru, Umi, and Fuu, are magically transported to the world of Cephiro to become armed magical warriors in the service of saving Cephiro from internal and external enemies. The super heroine subgenre also extensively developed the notion of teams ( sentai) of girls working together, ike the Sailor Senshiin Sailor Moon, the Magic Knights in Magic Knight Rayearth, and the Mew Mew girls from Mia Ikumi's Tokyo Mew Mew. By today, the superheroine narrative template has been widely used and parodied within theshōjo manga tradition (e.g., Nao Yazawa's Wedding Peach and Hyper Runeby Tamayo Akiyama) and outside that tradition, e.g., in bishōjocomedies like Kanan's Galaxy Angel In the mid-1980s and thereafter, as girls who had read shōjo manga as teenagers matured and entered the job market, shōjo manga elaborated subgenres directed at women in their 20s and 30s. This "Ladies Comic" orredisu-joseisubgenre has dealt with themes of young adulthood: jobs, the emotions and problems of sexual intercourse, and friendships or love among women. Redisu manga retains many of the narrative stylistics ofshōjo manga but has been drawn by and written for adult women. Redisu manga and art has been often, but not always, sexually explicit, but sexuality has characteristically been set into complex narratives of pleasure and erotic arousal combined with emotional risk. Examples include Ryō Ramiya'sLuminous Girls, Masako Watanabe's Kinpeibai and the work of Shungicu Uchida Another subgenre ofshōjo-redisu manga deals with emotional and sexual relationships among women ( akogare and yuri), in work by Erica Sakurazawa, Ebine Yamaji, and Chiho Saito. Other subgenres ofshōjo-redisu manga have also developed, e.g., fashion (oshare) manga, like Ai Yazawa's Paradise Kiss and horror-vampire-gothic manga, like Matsuri Hino's Vampire Knight, Kaori Yuki'sCain Saga, and Mitsukazu Mihara's DOLL, which interact with street fashions, costume play (" cosplay"), J-Popmusic, and gothsubcultures in complex ways.
History of manga Shōjo Manga And Ladies' Comics From 1975 to Today (1) In the following decades (1975–present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres. Major subgenres have included romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese,redisu, redikomi, andjosei), whose boundaries are sometimes indistinguishable from each other and from shōnen manga. In modern shōjo manga romance, love is a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization. Japanese manga/ animecritic Eri Izawa defines romance as symbolizing "the emotional, the grand, the epic; the taste of heroism, fantastic adventure, and the melancholy; passionate love, personal struggle, and eternal longing" set into imaginative, individualistic, and passionate narrative frameworks. These romances are sometimes long narratives that can deal with distinguishing between false and true love, coping with sexual intercourse, and growing up in a complex world, themes inherited by subsequent animated versions of the story. These "coming of age" or bildungs roman themes occur in both shōjo and shōnen manga. In the bildungs roman, the protagonist must deal with adversity and conflict, and examples inshōjo manga of romantic conflict are common. They include Miwa Ueda's Peach Girl, Fuyumi Soryo's Mars, and, for mature readers, Moyoco Anno's Happy Mania, Yayoi Ogawa's Tramps Like Us, and Ai Yazawa's Nana. In another shōjo manga bildungs roman narrative device, the young heroine is transported to an alien place or time where she meets strangers and must survive on her own (including Hagio Moto'sThey Were Eleven, Kyoko Hikawa's From Far Away, Yû Watase's Fushigi Yûgi: The Mysterious Play, and Chiho Saito'sThe World Exists For Me Yet another such device involves meeting unusual or strange people and beings, for example, Natsuki Takaya's Fruits Basket - one of the most popular shōjo manga in the United States - whose orphaned heroine Tohru must survive living in the woods in a house filled with people who can transform into the animals of the Chinese zodiac. In Harako Iida's Crescent Moon, heroine Mahiru meets a group of supernatural beings, finally to discover that she herself too has a supernatural ancestry when she and a young tengu demon fall in love.
History Of Manga-Shōjo Manga:- In 1969, a group of women manga artists later called the Year 24 Group(also known asMagnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut (year 24 comes from the Japanese name for 1949, when many of these artists were born). The group included Hagio Moto, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi and they marked the first major entry of women artists into manga. Thereafter,shōjo manga would be drawn primarily by women artists for an audience of girls and young women. In 1971, Ikeda began her immensely popular shōjo manga Berusaiyu no Bara ( The Rose of Versailles), a story of Oscar François de Jarjayes, a cross-dressing woman who was a Captain in Marie Antoinette's Palace Guards in pre-Revolutionary France. In the end, Oscar dies as a revolutionary leading a charge of her troops against the Bastille. Likewise, Hagio Moto's work challenged Neo-Confucianist limits on women's roles and activities as in her 1975 They Were Eleven, ashōjo science fictionstory about a young woman cadet in a future space academy. These women artists also created considerable stylistic innovations. In its focus on the heroine's inner experiences and feelings,shōjomanga are "picture poems" with delicate and complex designs that often eliminate panel borders completely to create prolonged, non-narrative extensions of time. All of these innovations – strong and independent female characters, intense emotionality, and complex design – remain characteristic of shōjo manga up to the present day.
Sunday, 2 March 2014
History Of Manga-After World War II (2):- Tezuka and Hasegawa were also both stylistic innovators. In Tezuka's "cinemato graphic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. More critically, Tezuka synchronised the placement of panel with the reader's viewing speed to simulate moving pictures. Hence in manga production as in film production, the person who decide the allocation of panels (Komawari) is credited as the author while most drawing are done by assistants. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists. Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjomanga. Between 1950 and 1969, increasingly large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys andshōjomanga aimed at girls. Up to 1969,shōjo manga was drawn primarily by adult men for young female readers. Two very popular and influential male-authored manga for girls from this period were Tezuka's 1953-1956 Ribon no Kishi ( Princess Knightor Knight in Ribbons) and Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1966 Mahōtsukai Sarii ( Little Witch Sally). Ribon no Kishidealt with the adventures of Princess Sapphire of a fantasy kingdom who had been born with male and female souls, and whose sword-swinging battles and romances blurred the boundaries of otherwise rigid gender roles. Sarii, the pre-teen princess heroine of Mahōtsukai Sarii, came from her home in the magical lands to live on Earth, go to school, and perform a variety of magical good deeds for her friends and schoolmates. Yokoyama's Mahōtsukai Sariiwas influenced by the U.S. TV sitcom Bewitched, but unlike Samantha, the main character of Bewitched, a married woman with her own daughter, Sarii is a pre-teenager who faces the problems of growing up and mastering the responsibilities of forthcoming adulthood. Mahōtsukai Sariihelped create the now very popularmahō shōjoor " magical girl" sub-genre of later manga. Both series were and still are very popular.
History Of Manga-After World War II (1):- Modern manga originates in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952-early 1960s), when a previously militaristic and ultranationalist Japanwas rebuilding its political and economic infrastructure. Although U.S. Occupation censorship policies specifically prohibited art and writing that glorified war and Japanese militarism, those policies did not prevent the publication of other kinds of material, including manga. Furthermore, the 1947 Japanese Constitution Article prohibited all forms of censorship. One result was the growth of artistic creativity in this period. In the fore front of this period are two manga series and characters that influenced much of the future history of manga. These are Osamu Tezuka's Mighty Atom ( Astro Boyin the United States; begun in 1951) and Machiko Hasegawa's Sazae-san(begun in 1946). Astro Boy was both a super powered robot and a naive little boy. Tezuka never explained why Astro Boy had such a highly developed social conscience nor what kind of robot programming could make him so deeply affiliative. Both seem innate to Astro Boy, and represent a Japanese sociality and community-oriented masculinity differing very much from the Emperor-worship and militaristic obedience enforced during the previous period of Japanese imperialism. Astro Boyquickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere as an icon and hero of a new world of peace and the renunciation of war, as also seen in Article 9 of the Japanese constitution. Similar themes occur in Tezuka'sNew World and Metropolis. By contrast, Sazae-san(meaning "Ms. Sazae") was drawn starting in 1946 by Machiko Hasegawa, a young woman artist who made her heroine a stand-in for millions of Japanese men and especially women rendered homeless by the war. Sazae-san does not face an easy or simple life, but, like Astro Boy, she too is highly affiliative and is deeply involved with her immediate and extended family. She is also a very strong character, in striking contrast to the officially sanctioned Neo-Confucianist principles of feminine meekness and obedience to the " good wife, wise mother" (ryōsai kenbo,) ideal taught by the previous military regime. Sazae-san faces the world with cheerful resilience, what Hayao Kawaicalls a "woman of endurance." Sazae-sansold more than 62 million copies over the next half century.
Saturday, 1 March 2014
History Of Manga-Before World War II (2):- Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books. These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous, satirical, and romantic themes. Although Kern does not believe that kibyoshi were a direct forerunner of manga, for Kern the existence of kibyoshinonetheless points to a Japanese willingness to mix words and pictures in a popular story-telling medium. The first recorded use of the term "manga" to mean "whimsical or impromptu pictures" comes from this tradition in 1798, which, Kern points out, predates Katsushika Hokusai's better known Hokusai Mangausage by several decades. Similarly, Inoue sees manga as being a mixture of image- and word-centered elements, each pre-dating the U.S.A. occupation of Japan. In his view, Japanese image-centered or "pictocentric" art ultimately derives from Japan's long history of engagement with Chinese graphic art, [ citation needed] where as word-centered or "logocentric" art, like the novel, was stimulated by social and economic needs of Meiji and pre-War Japanese nationalism for a populace unified by a common written language. Both fuse in what Inoue sees as a symbiosis in manga. Thus, these scholars see the history of manga as involving historical continuities and discontinuities between the aesthetic and cultural past as it interacts with post-World War II innovation and trans-nationalism.
History Of Manga-Before World War II (1):- Writers such as Takashi Murakami have stressed events after WW II, but Murakami sees Japan's defeat and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasakias having created long-lasting scars on the Japanese artistic psyche, which, in this view, lost its previously virile confidence in itself and sought solace in harmless and cute ( kawaii) images. [However, Takayumi Tatsumi sees a special role for a transpacific economic and cultural trans nationalism that created a postmodern and shared international youth culture of cartooning, film, television, music, and related popular arts, which was, for Tatsumi the crucible in which modern manga have developed. For Murakami and Tatsumi, trans-nationalism (or globalization) refers specifically to the flow of cultural and subcultural material from one nation to another. In their usage, the term does not refer to international corporate expansion, nor to international tourism, nor to cross-border international personal friendships, but to ways in which artistic, aesthetic, and intellectual traditions influence each other across national boundaries. An example of cultural trans-nationalism is the creation of Star Wars films in the United States, their transformation into manga by Japanese artists, and the marketing of Star Wars manga to the United States. [Another example is the transfer of hip-hop culture from the United States to Japan. Wong also sees a major role for trans-nationalism in the recent history of manga. However, other writers stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga. They include Frederik L. Schodt, [Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern. Schodt points to the existence in the 13th century of illustrated picture scrolls like Chōjū-jinbutsu-gigathat told stories in sequential images with humor and wit. Schodt also stresses continuities of aesthetic style and vision between ukiyo-eand shunga wood block prints and modern manga (all three fulfill Eisner's criteria for sequential art). While there are disputes over whether Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga or Shigisan-engiwas the first manga, both scrolls date back to about the same time period. However others like Isao Takahata, Studio Ghiblico-founder and director, contends there in no linkage with the scrolls and modern manga. Schodt also sees a particularly significant role for kamishibai, a form of street theater where itinerant artists displayed pictures in a light box while narrating the story to audiences in the street. Torrance has pointed to similar ities between modern manga and the Osaka popular novel between the 1890s and 1940, and argues that the development of widespread literacy in Meiji and post-Meiji Japan helped create audiences for stories told in words and pictures. Kinko Ito also roots manga historically in aesthetic continuity with pre-Meiji art, but she sees its post-World War II history as driven in part by consumer enthusiasm for the rich imagery and narrative of the newly developing manga tradition. Ito describes how this tradition has steadily produced new genres and markets, e.g., for girls' ( shōjo) manga in the late 1960s and for Ladies Comics ( redisu) in the 1980s.
History Of Manga-Introduction:- The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century; however, whether these scrolls are actually manga is still disputed, though it's believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. Other authors report origins closer to the 18th century. Mangais a Japanese term that can be translated as "whimsical sketches"; it generally means " comics" or " cartoon". Historians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-War, Meiji, and pre-MeijiJapanese culture and art. The first view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan (1945–1952), and stresses that manga was strongly shaped by United States cultural influences, including U.S. comics brought to Japanby the GIs and by images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons(especially Disney). According to Sharon Kinsella, the booming Japanese publishing industry helped create a consumer-oriented society in which publishing giants like Kodansha could shape popular taste.
Manga-Awards:- The Japanese manga industry grants a large number of awards, mostly sponsored by publishers, with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher. Examples of these awards include: *.the Akatsuka Award for humorous manga *.the Dengeki Comic Grand Prix for one-shot manga *.the Japan Cartoonists Association Award for various categories *.the Kodansha Manga Award (multiple genre awards) *.the Seiun Award for best science fiction comic of the year *.the Shogakukan Manga Award (multiple genres) *.the Tezuka Award for best new serial manga *.the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize (multiple genres) The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has awarded the International Manga Award annually since May 2007.
Localized Manga:- A number of artists in the United States have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. As an early example, Vernon Grantdrew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Others include Frank Miller's mid-1980s Ronin, Adam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 The Dirty Pair, Ben Dunn's 1987 Ninja High School and Manga Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics(1997). By the 21st century several U.S. manga publishers had begun to produce work by U.S. artists under the broad marketing-label of manga. In 2002 I.C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcatand now out of business, launched a series of manga by U.S. artists called Amerimanga. In 2004 eigo MANGA launched the Rumble Pakand Sakura Pakk anthology series. Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga. Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English- language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga. Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga, like Frédéric Boilet's la nouvelle manga. Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.
Manga in Europe:- Manga has influenced European cartooning in a way that is some what different than in the U.S.. Broadcast anime in Italy and France opened the European market to manga during the 1970s. French art has borrowed from Japan since the 19th century ( Japonisme), and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinéecartooning. In France, beginning in the mid-1990s, manga has proven very popular to a wide readership, accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since 2004. According to the Japan External Trade Organization, sales of manga reached $212.6 million within France and Germany alone in 2006. France represents about 50% of the European market and is the second worldwide market, behind Japan. European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Glénat, Asuka, Casterman, Kana, and Pika Édition, among others. European publishers also translate manga into German, Italian, Dutch, and other languages. In 2007, about 70% of all comics sold in Germany were manga. Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include Gollanczand Titan Books. Manga publishers from the United States have a strong marketing presence in the United Kingdom: for example, the Tanoshimiline from Random House.
Manga in United States:- Manga made their way only gradually into U.S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently. Some U.S. fansbecame aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s. However, anime was initially more accessible than manga to U.S. fans, many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain, subtitle, and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute tankōbon-style manga books. One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U.S. was Keiji Nakazawa's Barefoot Gen, an auto biographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics (1980–1982). More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s, including Golgo 13in 1986, Lone Wolf and Cub from First Comicsin 1987, and Kamui, Area 88, and Mai the Psychic Girl, also in 1987 and all from Viz Media- Eclipse Comics. Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel Comics' Epic Comicsimprint and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in 1988, and laterIczer-1 ( Antarctic Press, 1994) and Ippongi Bang'sF-111 Bandit (Antarctic Press, 1995). In the 1980s to the mid-1990s, Japanese animation, like Akira, Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Pokémon, made a bigger impact on the fan experience and in the market than manga. Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteusin 1986. Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of many Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow's Appleseedand Kōsuke Fujishima's Oh My Goddess!, for Dark Horseand Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan. Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U.S. market initiative with their U.S. subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills. Japanese publishers began pursuing a U.S. market in the mid-1990s due to a stagnation in the domestic market for manga. The U.S. manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell (translated by Frederik L. Schodtand Toren Smith) becoming very popular among fans. An extremely successful manga and anime translated and dubbed in English in the mid-1990s was Sailor Moon. By 1995–1998, the Sailor Moon mangahad been exported to over 23 countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, North America and most of Europe. In 1997, Mixx Entertainment began publishing Sailor Moon, along with CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth, Hitoshi Iwaaki's Parasyte and Tsutomu Takahashi's Ice Bladein the monthly manga magazine MixxZine. Two years later,MixxZine was renamed to Tokyopop before discontinuing in 2000. Mixx Entertainment, later renamed Tokyopop, also published manga in trade paperbacks and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics. In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues. and by 2008, the U.S. and Canadian manga market generated $175 million in annual sales. Simultaneously, mainstream U.S. media began to discuss manga, with articles in The New York Times, Time magazine, The Wall Street Journal, and Wired magazine.
Manga-International Markets:- By 2007 the influence of manga on international comics had grown considerably over the past two decades. "Influence" is used here to refer to effects on the comics markets outside of Japan and to aestheticeffects on comics artists internationally Traditionally, manga stories flow from top to bottom and from right to left. Some publishers of translated manga keep to this original format. Other publishers mirror the pages horizontally before printing the translation, changing the reading direction to a more "Western" left to right, so as not to confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers. This practice is known as "flipping". For the most part, criticism suggests that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it, and gets flipped, then the word is altered to "YAM"), who may be ignorant of how awkward it is to read comics when the eyes must flow through the pages and text in opposite directions, resulting in an experience that's quite distinct from reading something that flows homogeneously. If the translation is not adapted to the flipped artwork carefully enough it is also possible for the text to go against the picture, such as a person referring to something on their left in the text while pointing to their right in the graphic. Characters shown writing with their right hands, the majority of them, would become left-handed when a series is flipped. Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asym metrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with the gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right, or a shirt with the buttons on the wrong side, but these issues are minor when compared to the unnatural reading flow, and some of them could be solved with an adaptation work that goes beyond just translation and blind flipping.
Manga-Dōjinshi:- Main article: Dōjinshi Dōjinshi, produced by small publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market, resemble in their publishing small-pressindependently published comic booksin the United States. Comiket, the largest comic book conventionin the world with around 500,000 visitors gathering over three days, is devoted todōjinshi. While they most often contain original stories, many are parodies of or include charactersfrom popular manga and anime series. Somedōjinshicontinue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. In 2007,dōjinshisold for 27.73 billion yen (245 million USD). [ 46 ]In 2006 they represented about a tenth of manga books and magazines sales.
Manga-Collected Volumes-History:- Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyosai created the first manga magazine in 1874: Eshinbun Nipponchi. The magazine was heavily influenced byJapan Punch, founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist. Eshinbun Nipponchihad a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people. Eshinbun Nippon chiended after three issues. The magazine Kisho Shimbunin 1875 was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi, which was followed by Marumaru Chinbunin 1877, and then Garakuta Chinpoin 1879. Shōnen Sekaiwas the first shōnen magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami, a famous writer of Japanese children's literature back then. Shōnen Sekaihad a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War In 1905 the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo- Japanese War, Tokyo Pakku was created and became a huge hit. AfterTokyo Pakkuin 1905, a female version of Shōnen Sekaiwas created and named Shōjo Sekai, considered the first shōjo magazine. Shōnen Pakku was made and is considered the first children's mangamagazine. The children's demographic was in an early stage of development in the Meiji period.Shōnen Pakku was influenced from foreign children's magazines such as Puck which an employee of Jitsugyō no Nihon (publisher of the magazine) saw and decided to emulate. In 1924,Kodomo Pakku was launched as another children's manga magazine after Shōnen Pakku. During the boom,Poten (derived from the French "potin") was published in 1908. All the pages were in full color with influences from Tokyo Pakku and Osaka Pakku. It is unknown if there were any more issues besides the first one. Kodomo Pakkuwas launched May 1924 by Tokyosha and featured high-quality art by many members of the manga artistry like Takei Takeo, Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka. Some of the manga featured speech balloons, where other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and were silent. Published from May 1935 to January 1941, Manga no Kunico incided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). Manga no Kuni featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world.Manga no Kunihanded its title to Sashie Manga Kenkyūin August 1940.
Manga-Collected Volumes-History:- Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyosai created the first manga magazine in 1874: Eshinbun Nipponchi. The magazine was heavily influenced byJapan Punch, founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist. Eshinbun Nipponchihad a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people. Eshinbun Nippon chiended after three issues. The magazine Kisho Shimbunin 1875 was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi, which was followed by Marumaru Chinbunin 1877, and then Garakuta Chinpoin 1879. Shōnen Sekaiwas the first shōnen magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami, a famous writer of Japanese children's literature back then. Shōnen Sekaihad a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War In 1905 the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo- Japanese War, Tokyo Pakku was created and became a huge hit. AfterTokyo Pakkuin 1905, a female version of Shōnen Sekaiwas created and named Shōjo Sekai, considered the first shōjo magazine. Shōnen Pakku was made and is considered the first children's mangamagazine. The children's demographic was in an early stage of development in the Meiji period.Shōnen Pakku was influenced from foreign children's magazines such as Puck which an employee of Jitsugyō no Nihon (publisher of the magazine) saw and decided to emulate. In 1924,Kodomo Pakku was launched as another children's manga magazine after Shōnen Pakku. During the boom,Poten (derived from the French "potin") was published in 1908. All the pages were in full color with influences from Tokyo Pakku and Osaka Pakku. It is unknown if there were any more issues besides the first one. Kodomo Pakkuwas launched May 1924 by Tokyosha and featured high-quality art by many members of the manga artistry like Takei Takeo, Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka. Some of the manga featured speech balloons, where other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and were silent. Published from May 1935 to January 1941,Manga no Kunico incided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).Manga no Kuni featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world.Manga no Kunihanded its title to Sashie Manga Kenkyūin August 1940.
Manga-Collected Volumes:- After a series has run for a while, publishers often collect the episodes together and print them in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon. These can be hardcover or more usually softcover books and are the equivalent of U.S. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. These volumes often use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. Recently, "deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew. Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U.S. dollar) each to compete with the used book market.
Magazines:- Manga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine New type featured single chapters within their monthly periodicals. Other magazines like Nakayoshi feature many stories written by many different artists; these magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"), are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages thick. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comicsand various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Manga series can run for many years if they are successful. Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued. Magazines often have a short life.
Manga-Publications:- In Japan, manga constituted an annual 40.6 billion yen (approximately $395 million USD) publication-industry by 2007. In 2006 sales of manga books made up for about 27% of total book-sales, and sale of manga magazines, for 20% of total magazine-sales. Recently [ when], the manga industry has expanded worldwide, where distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages. Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership. In particular, books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) have distinctive cover-art, and most bookstores place them on different shelves. Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics. For example, male readers may subscribe to a series intended for female readers, and so on. Japan has manga cafés, ormanga kissa (kissais an abbreviation of kissaten). At amanga kissa, people drink coffee, read manga and sometimes stay overnight. There has been an increase in the amount of publications of original webmanga. It is internationally drawn by enthusiasts of all levels of experience, and is intended for online viewing. It can be ordered in graphic-novel form if available in print. The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese.
Manga- History And Characteristics (2):- Modern shōjo manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization. With the superheroines, shōjo manga saw releases such as Pink Hanamori's Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch Reiko Yoshida's Tokyo Mew Mew, And, Naoko Takeuchi's Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon, which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats. Groups (or sentais) of girls working together have also been popular within this genre. Like Lucia, Hanon, and Rina singing together, and Sailor Moon, Sailor Mercury, Sailor Mars, Sailor Jupiter, and Sailor Venus working together. Manga for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years old (shōnen manga) and young men 18- to 30-years old ( seinen manga); as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality. The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen" for "youth, young man" and for "adult, majority" the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also calledseijin ("adult") manga. Shōnen,seinen, and seijin manga share many features in common. Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots, space-travel, and heroic action-adventure. Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as popular. The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls ( bishōjo) such as Bell dandy from Oh My Goddess!, stories where such girls and women surround the hero, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team, or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo) With the relaxation of censorship in Japan in the 1990s, a wide variety of explicit sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers, and correspondingly occur in English translations. However, in 2010 the Tokyo Metropolitan Government passed a bill to restrict harmful content. The gekiga style of drawing—emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent—focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions. Gekiga such as Sampei Shirato's 1959–1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō) arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumiwith existing manga.
Manga-History And Characteristics (1):- Modern manga originated in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952–early 1960s), while a previously militaristic and ultra-nationalist Japan rebuilt its political and economic infrastructure. Writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan (1945–1952), and stresses U.S. cultural influences, including U.S. comics (brought to Japan by the GIs) and images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney). Alternately, other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war, Meiji, and pre-Meiji culture and art. Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity certainly occurred in the post-war period, involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka ( Astro Boy) and Machiko Hasegawa ( Sazae-san). Astro Boyquickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere, and the anime adaptation of Sazae-san drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011 .[ citation needed] Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists. Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga. Between 1950 and 1969, an increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the soli dification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys andshōjomanga aimed at girls. In 1969 a group of female manga artists (later called the Year 24 Group, also known asMagnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the birth-year of many of these artists). The group included Moto Hagio, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi. There after, primarily female manga artists would draw shōjo for a readership of girls and young women. In the following decades (1975–present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres. Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese,redisu, redikomi, andjosei
Manga-Etymology:- The kanji (pronounced "manhua" in Mandarin) that are used to write the word manga in Japanese can be translated as "whimsical drawings" or "impromptu sketches." Originally an 18th-century Chinese literatiterm, the word first came into common usage in Japan in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai (1798), and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai Mangabooks (1814–1834) containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-eartist Hokusai. Rakuten Kitazawa (1876–1955) first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. In Japan, "manga" can refer to both animation and comics. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics," in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside of Japan. The term " ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels.
Manga-Meaning:- Japan, or by Japanese creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. They have a long and complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, suspense, detective, horror, sexuality, and business/commerce, among others. Since the 1950s, manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry, representing a ¥406 billion market in Japan in 2007 (approximately $3.6 billion) and ¥420 billion ( $5.5 billion) in 2009. Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience. In Europe and the Middle East the market is worth $250 million. In 2008, in the U.S. and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million. The markets in France and the United States are about the same size. Manga stories are typically printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist (e.g. Colorful). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in tankōbon volumes, frequently but not exclusively, paperback books. A manga artist ( manga kain Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animate dafter or even during its run. Sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films. The term manga ( kanji; hiragana: katakana; listen ( help· info); English / ˈ m æ ŋ . ɡ ə /or / ˈ m ɑː ŋ . ɡ ə /) is a Japanese word referring both to comics and cartooning. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan. Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan (" manhua"), and South Korea (" manhwa"). In France, " la nouvelle manga" has developed as a form of bande dessinée comics drawn in styles influenced by manga. There are also OEL mangain America too.
History Of Fandub:- Amateur voice acting began simultaneously and independently from each other in a small number of developed countries. One of the first recorded projects, dating from 1994, is "Sinnlos im Weltraum" ("Senseless in Space"), a German redub of Star Trek: The Next Generation. The recordings were distributed on VHS, and copies were circulating only among a smaller group of people due to the technical limitations of the media. With digitalisation, starting in 1998, the fandub gained enormous popularity among the German audience. While fansubbing is a highly-popular means by which various Internet-downloaded visual media can be understood by other language markets, fandubbing as a practice has not gained similar momentum as a means of translation by lay Internet users. The majority of fandub projects are arranged for short-form video clips and are often posted to video hosting servicessuch as YouTube. Most series are produced online with voice actors often auditioning via forums, but live dubbing sessions at anime cons often take place, for example the " Anime Dub Live" panels held in the UK.
Meaning Of Fandub:- Fandub is a fan-made dubor redub of a live-action or animated production. Dubbing is the act of re-recording of a live-action or animated production, typically in a language other than the original. Most productions are translated from different languages, but fandubs do exist for productions that were produced in the fandubber's native language. The dialogue can range from being a close translation to a completely altered version of the original script's story and plots, as well as the personalities of protagonists. The reasons behind fandubbing can range from the production not receiving an official dub to the official dub being poorly received. Fandubs are most commonly done with Japanese animation, but can include live action and animated series and movies in any language. Versions where the story line, character personalities, and content are dramatically altered, typically in a humorous manner, are called "Abridged Series" and "fundubs". Because fandubs typically use copyright edmaterial, fandubs face the same copyright implications as fansubsbut on a different scale. There have been cases when popular fandubs, such as Yu-Gi-Oh! the Abridged series, Dragon Ball Z Abridged, and Sailor Moon Abridgedare tagged by the Japanese production company for copyright use of their material (usually on YouTube). These productions are usually later re-uploaded to a new channel, and are sometimes tagged again. Despite this, gag dubsare often popular among the fan community of a particular series.
ANIME-Recent Legal Action (part 2):- After MFI's request was made public, only Genshiken, whose fansubs had been completed before the notifications, and Kimi ga Nozomu Eienwere licensed in the US. MFI's other major projects, including Pugyuru and Akane Maniax, were not picked up by American distributors. The lack of buzz that surrounded these titles has been linked by fansub supporters [ citation needed] to MFI's suppression of fan distribution. They argue that by cutting off this means of "free advertisement," MFI has alienated fans who would normally buy their products after they were licensed and kept the shows from being as widely exposed as they might otherwise be. [ citation needed] The end result, say fansub supporters, [ citation needed] is a reduced interest from American anime companies and a loss of revenue for the studio. However, in August 2006, School Rumblewas finally licensed by Funimation thanks to popularity of the series garnered from its manga release by Del Rey. It took the series over 2 years to be licensed, which was normal for anime licenses around 2002. [ citation needed]Since MFI's legal action against fansubbers, their number of licenses secured is below the industry average. [ citation needed] MFI's actions are sometimes used as an example in the fansub debate as a reason why other Japanese companies should not pursue similar injunctions. However, their titles are still being licensed. The anime series based on Emmaand Ariawere both licensed in 2008, and Area 88, Gankutsuou, Kurau Phantom Memory, Noein, Shura no Toki, and UFO Ultramaiden Valkyrie were all licensed after the legal action in 2004. Recently, a few titles such as Street Fighter Generations were prelicensed, meaning that they were released simultaneously in Japan and North America, in an effort to negate the need for fansubs. However, some fansubbing of such titles still occurs, as some people prefer fansubs over commercial releases. Fansub opposers claim [ citation needed] that Japanese licensors have reportedly grown discontent with fansubbers because the ease of access with which their works are obtained has begun to affect foreign licensees' willingness to license a series, as evidenced by the Western market's sharp drop in new acquisitions in 2005. They also suggest [ citation needed] that anime fans in Japan have reportedly begun to turn to English fansubs which often appear days after a show's release, affecting sales in their home market. Indeed, Japanese companies have banded together to form JASRAC, a copyright holders' rights company, which has frequently taken YouTube to task for providing content which domestic Japanese viewers often use, which includes fansubs, as seen on their official site. A growing anti-fansub stance has been taken by US distributors, as seen in Geneon and ADV's comments at the State of the Industry Panel at Anime Boston, as well as recent comments by Matt Greenfield of ADV Films at Anime Central: "Answering a fan question on how ADV perceives the threat and challenge presented by fansubbers, Matt answered that while fan subtitling is hurting the industry both in the US and in Japan, 'the industry has to learn and adapt to new technology, and has to find ways to work around it.'" In Singapore, anime distributor Odexhas been actively tracking down and sending legal threatsagainst internet users in Singapore since 2007. These users have allegedly downloaded fansubbed anime via the BitTorrent protocol. Court orders onISPs to reveal subsc ...3,000 (US$ 2,000) per person, the youngest person being only 9 years old. These actions were considered controversial by the local anime community and have attracted criticisms towards the company, as they are seen by fans as heavy-handed.
Friday, 28 February 2014
ANIME-Recent Legal Action (part 1):- There is a belief among some fans that an "unspoken agreement" exists between the fansubbers and Japanese copyright holders that fansubs help promote a product. [ citation needed] Steve Kleckner of Tokyo popnoted: Frankly, I find it kind of flattering, not threatening To be honest, I believe that if the music industry had used downloading and file sharing properly, it would have increased their business, not eaten into it. And, hey, if you get 2,000 fans saying they want a book you've never heard of, well, you gotta go out and get it." This belief was challenged when in December 2004 Media Factory (MFI), a Japanese copyright holder, directly requested that their works be removed from download sites, and since then numerous other companies such as Nippon TV have followed suit in the wake of the appearance of fansubs on YouTube. On December 7, 2004, a Tokyo law firm representing Media Factory sent letters and e-mails to the anime BitTorrent directory Anime Sukiand fansub groups Lunar Anime and Wannabe Fansubs requesting that they halt the fansubbing and hosting of all current and future fansubbing productions. AnimeSuki and Lunar Anime complied, and shortly after, other fansub groups such as Solar and Shining Fansubs followed suit. Despite the request, Wannabe Fansubs and a handful of other fansubbing groups continued to produce fansubs of MFI anime series. To date, this has been one of the few legal actions taken by a Japanese anime company against fansubbing.
ANIME-Impact:- Advancements in fansubbing quality mean that fansubs are now of such quality and free accessibility that the incentive to upgrade (or in some cases downgrade, as from an HD fansub to an SD DVD) to a legitimate copy once a title is domestically licensed may be severely diminished.[ citation needed] An article published by the Yale Economic Review found that "almost all survey participants admitted that possession of a movie download will lower willingness to pay for legal products." Economic instabilities in both the US and Japan have made it hard to gauge the precise consequences of digisubs on the commercial industry, as well, though several Japanese and North American anime studios and distribution companies have pointed to fansubbing as drawing a large amount of profit away from them. [ citation needed] In April 2008, two Gonzotitles [ which] began free, subtitled releases simultaneously with their Japanese TV-airing counterparts on streaming websites YouTube, Crunchyroll, andBOST. In addition to the streaming video, viewers could pay any price they wished (greater than zero) to download a higher-quality version of the shows. As of October 2009, a large number of new anime are being distributed using this same model through Crunchyroll. The general reaction from the fansub community has been to not subtitle these shows, though in some cases the streaming video is released days after the Japanese airing and in very low quality, leading fansubs to still be done of such shows. Several "fansub groups" have taken to ripping the subtitles from these Crunchyroll releases, editing them slightly, syncing them to HDTV video sources, and then releasing them for free. That said, the apparent increase in support from Japanese animation studios for this new distribution model would suggest that it is working quite well, and the number of fansubbing groups has decreased as many people do not feel a need for fansubs when they can stream these shows legally and for free.[ citation needed]
ANIME-Dynamics Of Fansubbing:- Although executives of domestic anime distributors have been vocal about their objection to fansubs, most do not want to gain an image as being hostile to their fans. Of special note, many people in the anime industry started as VHS fansubbers themselves, although fansubbing as they knew it then has become profoundly different from fansubbing as it is known today. This is due to the shift from traditional fansubbing using VHS tape to moderndigisubsthat are circulated on the internet. During the early days of the Internet, it was difficult for fansubbing groups to get the attention of their target audience. [ citation needed] Even during the early to mid-1990s, groups still had to charge a nominal fee (usually $5 to $10 at most) for a VHS and shipping charges to get the anime to its destination. Many people in the general public were not willing to trust relatively unknown internet businesses, especially during the primitive days of internet security. Most of the American and UK anime distribution companies were formed during the early 1990s, and had little competition from such amateur groups. Some companies even formed out of fansubbing circles. [ citation needed] However, as the internet grew in availability and speed, fansub groups were able to host and distribute fansubs online easily. The advent of BitTorrentas opposed to IRC has been pointed to as a key ingredient in the current fansubbing scene. It has been argued that this prompted fans to ignore official releases altogether, and some websites started charging for easier downloading rates. The development of new software and its new found availability made it very simple to copy, subtitle, distribute, and play back fansubs, cutting into what DVDs offer, and their sales. Many anime shows make their debut outside of Japan's shores in electronic format, and it is rare that a popular anime will go without fansubs. Recently, this has also applied to the tokusatsu fandom due to the fact fansubs are actually being done for Super Sentai, Kamen Rider, Ultraman, and various Daikaiju movies in which most fans didn't appreciate the dubbing. In addition, J-Horror and J-Drama, as well as other Asian shows have been fansubbed as many people are becoming more and more curious about Asian cinema and breaking away from the Kung Fu, Samurai, and Giant Monsters films that so many people were familiar with prior to fansubbing.[ citation needed]
ANIME-Notable Incidents:- In 2003, a fansubbing group known as Anime Junkies was involved in a conflict with the licensor and co-producer of the Ninja Scroll TV, Urban Vision's even provided the pitch to Madhouse to create the series. Urban Vision sent a letter asking for Anime Junkies to stop hosting the licensed material, but Anime Junkies did not comply with the request and responded negatively to Urban Vision. Christopher Macdonald, an editor at Anime News Network, highlighted the ethics code of the fansubbing community and asked that fans not support Anime Junkies as a result of their actions
ANIME Legal And Ethical Issues (2):- The role fansubs have played in popularizing anime titles received official recognition by at least two major distributors. In the promotional video announcing the American license of The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya, Kadokawa Pictures USA and Bandai Entertainment specifically thanked fansub watchers and asked them to purchase the official release. A company can successfully dub over 100 episodes in as little as a two-year period, a length of time that has confused some fan groups due to the speed that fansubs can provide the same material (considering that the fanbase desires the unaltered Japanese show, simply with their native language subtitles). But companies are starting to address this issue, for example, Funimation is working to release their uncut, unedited episodes of One Piece in multiple formats, [ dead link]releasing earlier season sections alongside boxsets more recent episodes in attempt to meet fan demand. VIZ's boxset format releases for Naruto and Prince of Tennisalso attempt to deliver larger chunks of a series to fans in a quick and efficient manner. Due to 4Kids' heavy editing of their properties and refusal to release untouched versions on DVD, some fansubbing groups continue to subtitle and release popular shows owned by the company such as Tokyo Mew Mew, One Piece, and Yu-Gi-Oh!. 4Kids attempted an uncut bilingual release of Shaman Kingand Yu-Gi-Ohin the mid-2000s, releasing a handful of volumes of each title in the format, but in an interview with ANN Alfred Kahn stated that "The market for them just isn't as large as the one for the cut version," pointing out that their sales might not have met 4Kids' needs or expectations to continue them. Past market reactions have shown that time might be better spent petitioning 4Kids for a bilingual release, and supporting the uncut release of former 4Kids licenses like One Piece, to show them there is a market for such titles.[ citation needed] An older example is Sailor Moon, which was initially licensed by DiC. After fan demand showed there was a market for the title,[ citation needed] uncut, unedited versions of the show, and Pioneer successfully release the Sailor Moon Movies in a subtitled VHS format in 1999, followed by dubbed versions and bilingual DVDs. This was quickly followed by the release of Sailor Moon Sand Sailor Moon Supers, which both received complete unedited releases on VHS and DVD from Geneon. In 2003, the commercial subtitles of the first two seasons appeared, released by ADV Filmsunder license by DIC, completing the uncut release that many fans never believed would be possible.
ANIME-Legal And Ethical Issues:- In countries subscribing to the Berne Convention, fansubbing is illegal as it constitutes copyright infringement. However, fansubbers have traditionally held themselves to a common code of ethics and do not commonly see themselves as pirates. Many fansubs contain subtitle text that reads "This is a free fansub: not for sale, rent, or auction" that pops up during eyecatches Marketing concerns for distribution companies create a gray operating zone for fansubbers. While on the one hand it is true that products like Fist of the North Starare released and licensed in America, only part of the series is available. A fan willing to buy the whole series would find it impossible. However, the lack of support of these products is often a factor in the decision to not continue releasing a series. The costs of licensing more of the series might not be possible without a successful release of the initial offering. Supporters of fansubbing point to an alleged positive impact it has had on the anime industry through its function as publicity. There have been several shows that were at first overlooked for US distribution, only to be picked up later when fansubs helped create a buzz about the franchise. [ citation needed]
ANIME-Distribution and playback:- In the late 1990s and early 2000s, fansubs in electronic form were primarily distributed like VHS and Beta tapes: via mailed CD-Rs. Many fans did not have high speed Internet and were unable to download large files. Many of the early digital fansubs were made from regular tape subs.[ citation needed] In the mid-2000s, most fansubs were distributed through IRC channels, file hosting servicesand BitTorrent. In recent years most groups have shifted from using IRC to being primarily BitTorrent. BitTorrent trackers dedicated to anime fansub releases allow fans to easily find the latest releases, and individual fansub groups often use their own websites to inform fans of new releases. Because of an almost complete de-emphasis on CD-R and DVD-R distribution, file size standards are less frequently followed. An appropriate video and audio playback codec needs to be installed on the computer for proper playback. In addition, many of the video files use alternate multimedia container formats such as OGMand Matroska. Special decoders need to be acquired for these formats as well. One main benefit of using Ogg or Matroska multimedia containers is the ability to create a single file that has DVD-like features such as chapter support and multiple audio and/or subtitle tracks, as well as support for separate opening/ending animation files. At the same time, these multimedia containers can be easily demuxed into their individual files, the individual files can be altered (for example, fixing a misspelling in the subtitles), and then remuxed back together. Many fansub groups recommend using a codec pack, such as CCCP, to allow for relatively simple playback of these formats.
Thursday, 27 February 2014
Modern Fansub Techniques (4) :- The internet allows for highly collaborative fansubbing, and each member of a fansub team may only complete one task. Online fansubbing communities are able to release a fully subtitled episode (including elaborate karaoke with translation, kana, and kanji for songs, as well as additional remarks and translations of signs) within 24 hours of an episode's debut in Japan. While this kind of speed is possible, the groups that favor speed in determent of quality are known as "speedsub" groups and tend to release low-quality fansubs (in terms of subtitle accuracy, video quality, and other aspects). "Quality" groups often take several days, weeks, or even months to release each episode after its initial airing. However, with the advent of new techniques and technology, such as softsubs and modern hardware capable of encoding high quality video quickly, combined with larger fansub groups tending to have a large staff capable of performing tasks in parallel, the line between speedsubs and quality subs is gradually becoming blurred.
Modern Fansub Techniques (3) :- Quality control, or QC, is one of the final stages of fansubbing. Many groups do what is called a "soft QC", then encode the episode, then do what is called a "hard QC." The goal of quality checking an episode is to catch any type setting, timing, editing, and, in the case of hard QC, encoding errors. Most groups have multiple Q Cers, each of whom compiles a report of errors in the episode and submits it, and any errors are then fixed. Quality checkers often are capable of doing other fansub jobs, or have some overall knowledge of the fansubbing process, as well as an eye for spotting various errors. The subtitles are then encoded using Virtual Dubor a similar program. There are several methods of subbing currently used."Hard" subtitles, orhard subs, are encoded into the footage, and thus become hard to remove from the video without losing video quality (this can be done with a Virtual Dub Filter)."Soft" subtitles, or soft subs, are subtitles applied at playback time from a subtitle datafile, either muxed directly into the video file (.mkv, .ogm, etc.), or in a separate file (.ssa, .srt, etc.). With the correct media playeror an auxiliary program, softsubs are superimposed on the footage and appear indistinguishable from hardsubs. Soft subs can also be rendered at higher resolutions, which can make for easier reading if the viewer is upscaling the file. Hard subs have traditionally been more popular than softsubs, due to a lack of player support and worries over plagiarism, but most fansub groups now release a softsub version of their releases. Since modern video media can contain multiple softsubs, some groups release fansubs with several translations into different languages, or differently styled subtitles to fit different preferences. Some groups have begun to release the opening and ending animations as separate files in order to reduce the size of each individual episode, though this introduces conflicts with player support, thus this method is not yet widespread.[ citation needed] In the case of hard subtitles a video editor (commonly Virtual Dub) uses an AVI Synth script to load the raw video file and the subtitle file (created by the translators) then the video software applies the subtitles on the video and captures video with the subtitles "burned" in. The resulting fansub is a computer video file. In the case of soft subs, the companion sub data can be supplied as a separate file; however the complete package often now comes in a suitable media container such as Matroska. It can be copied to CD or DVD media for physical distribution, but is most often distributed using online file-sharing protocols such as viral video, DDL, BitTorrent and by file-sharing bots on IRC. This distribution is usually handled by a distribution team, or "distro" team, composed of one or more individuals with a server or very high upload speed. This allows modern anime fans to download the finished product at little or no cost to themselves or to distributors, as the distro team usually uses servers that are not dedicated to fansub releases, or that are paid for through donations to their respective fansub group. [ citation needed]
Modern Fansub Techniques (2) :- Another, more recent, alternative with the growing availability and usage of .tsraws is translation from Japanese closed captions. The closed captions can be exported from the .ts raw into various formats, and most fansub groups use a program called C-Catsto accomplish it. This method often results in a fast, yet still fairly accurate translation due to greater ease of translating text to text, rather than audio to text. This method, however, is not as widespread, as it is still not commonplace to have a .ts raw for a show. In addition, not all .ts raws have the closed captions in them, as some raw providers remove the captions, and some Japanese broadcasting stations do not broadcast with closed captions. Groups that use closed captions from a .ts raw use the audio to verify the closed caption translation, as it cannot be guaranteed that the closed captions are flawless.[ citation needed] Timing can take place before or after translation, and currently Aegisubis the most popular program for this process. Many groups will "pre-time" before the translation is done, then upon completion of the translation, apply the translation to the timed lines, while at the same time doing what is called "fine timing." Fine timing often involves applying "scene timing," which is a process whereby a line's start or end point is made to correspond with a nearby scene change. This prevents "scene bleeds," which occur when every line has the same lead-in or lead-out time, resulting in some lines starting before or after a scene change. The next process is to typeset both the text or other parts of the video which have been translated (signs, cellphone screens, etc.). Many groups make viewing easier and more organized by utilizing different colors and/or styles for different conditions that the current line is under. In this way, viewers can differentiate between, for example, speech by an on-screen character, speech by an off-screen character, thoughts, announcements (e.g. train boarding notices), or any other conditions which may require differentiation. Many groups use AFX, which is the process of typesetting signs or other on-screen text onto the video such that they blend in seamlessly with or on top of the original Japanese ones. Due to the limitations of softsubs, AFX is usually encoded directly into the video. Many groups who either do not have skilled typesetters or are attempting to release as fast as possible will often just put up another subtitle line (usually at the top of the screen) with the translation of the on-screen text (e.g. "Sign: John's Pub"). Editing takes place any time after the translation has been completed. Most translators are more proficient in Japanese than they are in English, and as such their translations are often ambiguous or grammatically incorrect. It is the editor's job to make the subtitles as easily understandable to a native English speaker as the Japanese audio would be to a native Japanese speaker, while still retaining as much of the original meaning as possible. Different groups have different guidelines for editing. Some insist upon keeping as literal subtitles as possible, thus the editor would merely fix spelling and grammar mistakes, while other groups are more liberal with their editing, in which case the editor often rewrites/rewords lines in their entirety. Many groups have the translator or translation checker view the episode with the edited subtitles to ensure that the editor has not accidentally changed the meaning of a line. Fansub editors on the whole do not require high-level English education, as the dialogue lines are of course not extremely complex.[ citation needed]
Some Stories Need To Be Told ANIME Style: Some Stories Need To Be Told ANIME Style: ANIME-Fa...: Some Stories Need To Be Told ANIME Style: ANIME-Fansub:- Fansub a version of a foreign film...