Saturday, 22 March 2014

Manga Outside Japan-Manga in United States ( North America ) [1]:- The growth of manga translation and publishing in the United States has been a slow progression over several decades. The earliest manga-derived series to be released in the United States was a redrawn American adaptation of Osamu Tezuka's Astro Boypublished by Gold Key Comicsstarting in 1965. The first manga to be published in the US with its original artwork intact was a ten-page story by Shinobu Kaze, "Violence Becomes Tranquility", which appeared in the March 1980 issue of Heavy Metal. In December 1982 the San Francisco-based publisher Educomics released a colorized and translated version of Keiji Nakazawa'sI Saw It. Four translated volumes of Nakazawa's major work Barefoot Genwere also published in the early 1980s by New Society Publishers. Short works by several Garo-affiliated artists including Yoshiharu TsugeandTerry Yumuraappeared in May 1985 in RAW's no. 7 "Tokyo Raw" special. In 1987, Viz Comics, an American subsidiary of the Japanese publishers Shogakukanand Shueisha, began publishing translations of three manga series - Area 88, Mai the Psychic Girl, and The Legend of Kamui- in the U.S. in association with the American publisher Eclipse Comics. Viz went on to bring English translations of popular series such as Ranma ½ and Nausicaä of the Valley of the Windin the late 1980s and early 1990s. Some other American publishers released notable translations of Japanese comics in this period, such as First Comics' serialization of Lone Wolf and Cubwhich started in May 1987. However, the first manga to make a strong impression on American audiences was Katsuhiro Otomo's Akira, which was brought to the United States in colorized form in 1988 by Epic Comics, a division of Marvel Throughout the 1990s, manga slowly gained popularity as Viz Media, Dark Horseand Mixx (now Tokyo pop) released more titles for the US market. Both Mixx and Viz published manga anthologies:MixxZine(1997–1999) ran serialized manga such as Sailor Moon, Magic Knight Rayearthand Ice Blade, while Viz's Animerica Extra (1998–2004) featured series including Fushigi Yugi, Banana Fishand Utena: Revolutionary Girl. In 2002 Viz began publishing a monthly American edition of the famous Japanese "phone book"-style manga anthology Shōnen Jumpfeaturing some of the most popular manga titles from Japan, including Dragon Ball Z, Naruto, Bleachand One Piece. Its circulation far surpassed that of previous American manga anthologies, reaching 180,000 in 2005. Also in 2005, Viz launched Shojo Beat, a successful counterpart toShonen Jumpaimed at female readers.

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