Saturday, 1 March 2014

History Of Manga-Before World War II (1):- Writers such as Takashi Murakami have stressed events after WW II, but Murakami sees Japan's defeat and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasakias having created long-lasting scars on the Japanese artistic psyche, which, in this view, lost its previously virile confidence in itself and sought solace in harmless and cute ( kawaii) images. [However, Takayumi Tatsumi sees a special role for a transpacific economic and cultural trans nationalism that created a postmodern and shared international youth culture of cartooning, film, television, music, and related popular arts, which was, for Tatsumi the crucible in which modern manga have developed. For Murakami and Tatsumi, trans-nationalism (or globalization) refers specifically to the flow of cultural and subcultural material from one nation to another. In their usage, the term does not refer to international corporate expansion, nor to international tourism, nor to cross-border international personal friendships, but to ways in which artistic, aesthetic, and intellectual traditions influence each other across national boundaries. An example of cultural trans-nationalism is the creation of Star Wars films in the United States, their transformation into manga by Japanese artists, and the marketing of Star Wars manga to the United States. [Another example is the transfer of hip-hop culture from the United States to Japan. Wong also sees a major role for trans-nationalism in the recent history of manga. However, other writers stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga. They include Frederik L. Schodt, [Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern. Schodt points to the existence in the 13th century of illustrated picture scrolls like Chōjū-jinbutsu-gigathat told stories in sequential images with humor and wit. Schodt also stresses continuities of aesthetic style and vision between ukiyo-eand shunga wood block prints and modern manga (all three fulfill Eisner's criteria for sequential art). While there are disputes over whether Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga or Shigisan-engiwas the first manga, both scrolls date back to about the same time period. However others like Isao Takahata, Studio Ghiblico-founder and director, contends there in no linkage with the scrolls and modern manga. Schodt also sees a particularly significant role for kamishibai, a form of street theater where itinerant artists displayed pictures in a light box while narrating the story to audiences in the street. Torrance has pointed to similar ities between modern manga and the Osaka popular novel between the 1890s and 1940, and argues that the development of widespread literacy in Meiji and post-Meiji Japan helped create audiences for stories told in words and pictures. Kinko Ito also roots manga historically in aesthetic continuity with pre-Meiji art, but she sees its post-World War II history as driven in part by consumer enthusiasm for the rich imagery and narrative of the newly developing manga tradition. Ito describes how this tradition has steadily produced new genres and markets, e.g., for girls' ( shōjo) manga in the late 1960s and for Ladies Comics ( redisu) in the 1980s.

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