Sunday, 2 March 2014

History Of Manga-After World War II (1):- Modern manga originates in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952-early 1960s), when a previously militaristic and ultranationalist Japanwas rebuilding its political and economic infrastructure. Although U.S. Occupation censorship policies specifically prohibited art and writing that glorified war and Japanese militarism, those policies did not prevent the publication of other kinds of material, including manga. Furthermore, the 1947 Japanese Constitution Article prohibited all forms of censorship. One result was the growth of artistic creativity in this period. In the fore front of this period are two manga series and characters that influenced much of the future history of manga. These are Osamu Tezuka's Mighty Atom ( Astro Boyin the United States; begun in 1951) and Machiko Hasegawa's Sazae-san(begun in 1946). Astro Boy was both a super powered robot and a naive little boy. Tezuka never explained why Astro Boy had such a highly developed social conscience nor what kind of robot programming could make him so deeply affiliative. Both seem innate to Astro Boy, and represent a Japanese sociality and community-oriented masculinity differing very much from the Emperor-worship and militaristic obedience enforced during the previous period of Japanese imperialism. Astro Boyquickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere as an icon and hero of a new world of peace and the renunciation of war, as also seen in Article 9 of the Japanese constitution. Similar themes occur in Tezuka'sNew World and Metropolis. By contrast, Sazae-san(meaning "Ms. Sazae") was drawn starting in 1946 by Machiko Hasegawa, a young woman artist who made her heroine a stand-in for millions of Japanese men and especially women rendered homeless by the war. Sazae-san does not face an easy or simple life, but, like Astro Boy, she too is highly affiliative and is deeply involved with her immediate and extended family. She is also a very strong character, in striking contrast to the officially sanctioned Neo-Confucianist principles of feminine meekness and obedience to the " good wife, wise mother" (ryōsai kenbo,) ideal taught by the previous military regime. Sazae-san faces the world with cheerful resilience, what Hayao Kawaicalls a "woman of endurance." Sazae-sansold more than 62 million copies over the next half century.

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